Developing competence in ethical practice is a complex process. Students require exposure to ethical knowledge and ethical problems across multiple fora and at multiple timepoints during their development. This exposure must be interactive, multi-modal, and contextualised to real-life situations to support the application of ethics in practice. The ability to identify ethical problems, critically analyse these problems, engage in multi-disciplinary discussion, and negotiate ethical decision-making processes are important skills for development. Key skills that can be supported are the ability to:
The evidence indicates that ethics education can enhance students’ development of ethical competence , ability to identify ethical problems [1,3], ethical analysis, sensitivity, and decision-making , and ethical confidence . Variety in exposure to ethical situations [1,2,4] across multiple timepoints is needed, as experience level is generally suggestive of higher ethical effectiveness . Contextualised and facilitated case-study discussions separated from the direct care interface are an important element of this development.
One meta-analysis  informs this evidence summary and three systematic reviews [1,3,4] are provided as further support for the conclusions. All are high-quality studies. Only one study included a multi-disciplinary perspective , with others including scientists  and medicine [3,4], limiting generalisability). The rigour of the included studies is indicative of a high-level of confidence in the findings. (➕➕➕➕ ).